IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL APPELLATE JURISDICTION
CIVIL APPEAL NO.6000 OF 2010
(Arising out of SLP (C) No.760 of 2007)
Afcons Infrastructure Ltd. & Anr. – APPELLANT
Cherian Varkey Construction Co.(P) Ltd. & Ors. – RESPONDENT
- Coming back to this case, we may refer to the decision in Sukanya Holdings relied upon by the respondents, to contend that for a reference to arbitration under section 89 of the Code, consent of parties is not required. The High Court assumed that Sukanya Holdings has held that section 89 enables the civil court to refer a case to arbitration even in the absence of an arbitration agreement. Sukanya Holdings does not lay down any such proposition. In that decision, this Court was considering the question as to whether an application under section 8 of the AC Act could be maintained even where a part of the subject matter of the suit was not covered by an arbitration agreement. The only observations in the decision relating to Section 89 are as under:“Reliance was placed on Section 89 CPC in support of the argument that the matter should have been referred to arbitration. In our view, Section 89 CPC cannot be resorted to for interpreting Section 8 of the Act as it stands on a different footing and it would be applicable even in cases where there is no arbitration agreement for referring the dispute for arbitration. Further, for that purpose, the court has to apply its mind to the condition contemplated under Section 89 CPC and even if application under Section 8 of the Act is rejected, the court is required to follow the procedure prescribed under the said section.”The observations only mean that even when there is no existing arbitration agreement enabling filing of an application under section 8 of the Act, there can be a reference under section 89 to arbitration if parties agree to arbitration. The observations in Sukanya Holdings do not assist the first respondent as they were made in the context of considering a question as to whether section 89 of the Code could be invoked for seeking a reference under section 8 of the AC Act in a suit, where only a part of the subjectmatter of the suit was covered by arbitration agreement and other parts were not covered by arbitration agreement. The first respondent next contended that the effect of the decision in Sukanya Holdings is that “section 89 of CPC would be applicable even in cases where there is no arbitration agreement for referring the dispute to arbitration.” There can be no dispute in regard to the said proposition as Section 89 deals, not only with arbitration but also four other modes of non-adjudicatory resolution processes and existence of an arbitration agreement is not a condition precedent for exercising power under Section 89 of the Code in regard to the said four ADR processes.
- In the light of the above discussion, we answer the questions as follows :
(i) The trial court did not adopt the proper procedure while enforcing Section 89 of the Code. Failure to invoke Section 89 suo moto after completion of pleadings and considering it only after an application under Section 89 was filed, is erroneous.
(ii) A civil court exercising power under Section 89 of the Code cannot refer a suit to arbitration unless all the parties to the suit agree for such reference.
(iii) Consequently, this appeal is allowed and the order of the trial court referring the matter to arbitration and the order of the High Court affirming the said reference are set aside. The Trial Court will now consider and decide upon a non-adjudicatory ADR process.
- The appeal is disposed of in the aforestated terms.
(R V Raveendran)
(J M Panchal)
FEBRUARY 22, 2013.